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Alaska Flies

Imagine soaring through the vast Alaskan wilderness, surrounded by breathtaking landscapes of mountains, glaciers, and untamed wildlife. Alaska Flies brings you the ultimate adventure in this awe-inspiring destination. Whether you’re a nature enthusiast, an avid photographer, or simply seeking an unforgettable experience, Alaska Flies offers exhilarating fly-in tours that showcase the very best of this stunning state. From spotting grizzly bears fishing along pristine rivers to landing on remote lakes with turquoise waters, Alaska Flies unlocks the true essence of Alaska’s wilderness, leaving you with memories that will last a lifetime.

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Alaska’s Common Flies

Alaska is home to a diverse range of fly species, each with its own unique characteristics and habits. In this article, we will explore the common flies found in Alaska and delve into their morphology, lifecycle, breeding environments, survival adaptations, impact on the ecosystem, public health concerns, fly fishing, controlling fly populations, and ongoing research and studies.

Black Flies

Black flies, also known as buffalo gnats or turkey gnats, are notorious pests in Alaska. These small insects belong to the Simuliidae family and are known for their painful bites. They are most active during the warmer months, particularly in May and June. Black flies are typically found near water sources, such as rivers and streams, and their bites can cause itching, swelling, and discomfort.

Biting Midges

Biting midges, also called no-see-ums, are tiny flies that are prevalent in Alaska. These pests are known for their painful bites and can be a nuisance during outdoor activities. Biting midges are most active in the early mornings and evenings, especially in humid and damp environments. Their bites often result in itchy welts, and their presence can disrupt outdoor recreational activities.


Mosquitoes are ubiquitous pests found throughout Alaska. These flying insects are known for their itchy bites and can be a major annoyance, particularly in the summer months. Various species of mosquitoes exist in Alaska, and they breed in different habitats, including wetlands, forests, and urban areas. Mosquitoes are not only bothersome but also pose a risk for transmitting diseases such as West Nile virus and mosquito-borne encephalitis.

Blow Flies

Blow flies, also known as greenbottle flies, are a common sight in Alaska. These flies are attracted to decaying organic matter and are important contributors to decomposition in the ecosystem. Blow flies lay their eggs on carcasses or other decaying material, and their larvae, commonly known as maggots, play a crucial role in breaking down organic matter. While blow flies may not be as bothersome to humans as other fly species, they are essential to the natural cycle of decomposition in Alaska’s environment.


No-see-ums, also referred to as biting midges, are tiny flies that often go unnoticed due to their small size. Despite their small stature, these flies can deliver painful bites, causing itching and discomfort. No-see-ums are commonly found in wetland areas, forests, and near bodies of water. They are most active during dusk and dawn, making outdoor activities during these times particularly challenging.

Morphology of Alaska Flies

The flies in Alaska exhibit a range of morphological traits that help distinguish them from one another. Understanding their body shape, size, and color variations can aid in identifying different fly species.

Body Shape and Size

The body shape and size of Alaska flies vary among species. Black flies have a compact, humpbacked body shape, while biting midges are slender and delicate. Mosquitoes have thin bodies with a long, pointed proboscis for piercing and sucking blood. Blow flies, on the other hand, have a robust body shape and metallic coloration. No-see-ums have a small and inconspicuous body structure that allows them to go unnoticed until they deliver their painful bites.

Color Variations

Alaska flies display a range of color variations that can help with identification. Black flies are often dark in color, while biting midges can be pale or dark depending on the species. Mosquitoes usually possess a combination of dark and light colors, with some species displaying distinctive patterns on their wings or body. Blow flies are typically metallic green, blue, or bronze in color. No-see-ums are often gray or brown, blending in with their surroundings.

Unique Characteristics

Each fly species in Alaska has unique characteristics that set them apart. Black flies have a humpbacked appearance and are known for their painful bites. Biting midges are distinguished by their tiny size and ability to deliver painful bites despite their diminutive stature. Mosquitoes have a long proboscis for feeding on blood, and some species have intricate wing patterns. Blow flies have a metallic sheen and play a vital role in decomposition. No-see-ums are incredibly small and often go unnoticed until their bites become evident.

Alaska Flies Lifecycle

Understanding the lifecycle of flies is crucial in managing their populations and implementing effective control measures. Like all flies, Alaska flies go through distinct stages of development: eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults.


The lifecycle of Alaska flies begins with the laying of eggs. Female flies typically lay their eggs near suitable breeding environments, such as water sources or decaying organic matter. The number of eggs laid and the time it takes for them to hatch vary among fly species. Black flies deposit their eggs in clusters on vegetation near water, while mosquitoes lay their eggs on the water surface in rafts or individual eggs.

Larvae Stage

Once the eggs hatch, the fly larvae emerge. The larvae, also known as maggots, have distinct characteristics depending on the species. They feed on organic matter, including decaying vegetation or animal carcasses. Larvae go through several molts as they grow, and this stage plays a crucial role in the fly’s development.

Pupae Stage

After the larvae reach maturity, they enter the pupae stage. During this stage, the larvae transform into an immature fly enclosed in a protective casing known as a pupa. The pupae are often found in moist environments, such as in the soil near water sources. Inside the pupa, the fly undergoes dramatic changes, developing key anatomical features and preparing for adulthood.

Adult Stage

The final stage of the fly lifecycle is the emergence of adult flies. Once the pupal stage is complete, adult flies emerge and are ready to reproduce. Male flies often engage in mating behaviors to attract females. Depending on the species, adult flies may have varying lifespans, with some living for only a few days while others can survive for several weeks or even months.

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Breeding Environments of Alaska Flies

Alaska’s diverse landscapes provide suitable breeding environments for flies. Understanding the preferred breeding habitats of different fly species is vital for implementing effective control measures and managing fly populations.


Many fly species in Alaska, such as black flies and no-see-ums, thrive in wetland areas. Wetlands provide abundant water sources for egg deposition and serve as favorable environments for larvae development. The combination of moisture and organic material creates a conducive breeding ground for flies in these habitats.


While forests are not the primary breeding grounds for most flies, they serve as important transition areas for certain species. Flies that feed on vertebrate animals, such as blow flies, often frequent forested areas due to the presence of potential hosts. Fallen logs, decaying tree trunks, and animal carcasses provide suitable resources for fly larvae in forested environments.

Rivers and Ponds

Flies, particularly black flies and mosquitoes, commonly breed near rivers, streams, and ponds in Alaska. These aquatic environments provide the necessary water sources for egg deposition and larval development. The flowing water and organic matter found in these habitats create optimal conditions for fly reproduction.

Urban Areas

Even in urban areas, Alaska flies find suitable breeding environments. Stagnant water in puddles, neglected swimming pools, or improperly managed garbage attract flies, creating a nuisance for residents. Mosquitoes, in particular, can thrive in urban areas where standing water is abundant, such as in flower pots, birdbaths, or rain barrels.

Surviving the Harsh Alaskan Winter

Alaska’s harsh winters pose significant challenges for flies. However, some species have developed survival strategies and adaptations that enable them to endure the freezing temperatures and snowy conditions.

Overwintering Tactics

During the winter, flies adopt various strategies to survive in Alaska’s frigid climate. Some species, like mosquitoes, overwinter as adults by seeking shelter in protected areas such as animal burrows, cellars, or other insulated spaces. The low temperatures slow their metabolism and extend their lifespan, allowing them to survive until the arrival of spring. Others, such as black flies, overwinter as eggs or larvae, waiting for favorable conditions to complete their development.

Flies Adaptations to Cold

Flies have developed several adaptations to withstand the cold temperatures in Alaska. Mosquitoes, for example, produce antifreeze compounds in their bodies, which lower the freezing point of their bodily fluids. This adaptation prevents the formation of ice crystals within their cells and helps them survive the freezing temperatures. Some fly species enter a state of diapause, a form of dormancy, to conserve energy and reduce their metabolic rate during winter.

Risk Factors

While many flies have evolved survival mechanisms to endure Alaska’s winter, certain risk factors can impact their populations. Unusually severe winters with prolonged periods of sub-zero temperatures can significantly reduce fly populations. Additionally, fluctuations in snow cover and freeze-thaw cycles can influence the survival of fly eggs and larvae, potentially affecting their numbers in subsequent seasons.

Impact on Alaska’s Ecosystem

Flies play essential roles in Alaska’s ecosystems, contributing to the food chain, pollination tasks, and decomposition processes. Understanding their ecological significance is crucial for maintaining a balanced and healthy environment.

Role in Food Chain

Flies occupy various positions within the food chain in Alaska. As primary consumers, fly larvae feed on decaying organic matter, breaking it down into smaller particles and facilitating nutrient recycling. These larvae serve as an essential food source for secondary consumers, such as birds, bats, and fish. In turn, the predators that feed on these secondary consumers benefit from the energy derived from the flies’ nutritional content.

Pollination Tasks

While flies may not be the primary pollinators in Alaska, some species, such as mosquitoes and biting midges, contribute to pollination efforts. These flies often feed on flower nectar, inadvertently carrying pollen from one plant to another. Although their pollination role may be overshadowed by bees and other insects, flies play a small but significant part in Alaska’s plant reproduction process.

Decomposition Contributions

Fly species, particularly blow flies, are crucial in the decomposition process in Alaska’s ecosystems. When an animal carcass or decaying matter is present, blow flies lay their eggs, and their larvae consume the organic material. By breaking down the carcass, fly larvae accelerate decomposition and nutrient cycling. This process aids in the recycling of vital nutrients back into the ecosystem, ensuring the balance and health of Alaska’s environment.

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Public Health Concerns Due to Alaska Flies

Fly populations in Alaska can pose public health concerns due to disease transmission and fly infestations. Understanding these risks and implementing appropriate preventive measures is essential for safeguarding public health in the state.

Disease Transmission

Some fly species in Alaska, such as mosquitoes, have the potential to transmit diseases to humans. Mosquito-borne diseases like West Nile virus and mosquito-borne encephalitis pose significant health risks. These diseases can cause symptoms ranging from mild fever and flu-like symptoms to more severe neurological complications. Proper mosquito control measures, such as eliminating stagnant water sources and using repellents, are key in reducing the transmission of these diseases.

Fly Infestations

Fly infestations can be a major nuisance and frustration for residents in Alaska. Infestations of black flies, biting midges, or no-see-ums can disrupt outdoor activities and cause discomfort due to their painful bites. Additionally, blow fly infestations can occur around areas with decaying organic matter, leading to foul odors and unsanitary conditions. Effective fly management techniques, such as insecticide treatments and improved sanitation practices, can help mitigate these infestations.

Preventing and Managing Fly Bites

Preventing fly bites is crucial in reducing the risk of disease transmission and discomfort caused by Alaska flies. Wearing protective clothing, such as long sleeves and pants, using insect repellents, and avoiding areas with high fly populations during peak activity times can help minimize the risk of bites. For outdoor activities in fly-prone areas, the use of fine mesh netting or screened shelters can provide an additional barrier of protection.

Fly Fishing in Alaska

Alaska’s vast wilderness and abundant rivers offer excellent opportunities for fly fishing enthusiasts. Understanding the common types of flies used, the seasonal changes in fly choice, and the best locations for fly fishing can enhance the experience for anglers.

Common Types of Flies Used

Fly fishing in Alaska often involves the use of various artificial flies to imitate natural insect patterns. Some common fly types used include nymphs, dry flies, streamers, and egg patterns. Nymphs, imitating the underwater larval stage of flies, are effective for trout fishing. Dry flies, designed to sit on the water’s surface, resemble adult flies and attract fish during their feeding activity. Streamers imitate small fish or other prey, enticing predatory fish such as salmon or pike. Egg patterns mimic the eggs of spawning fish, a popular choice for fishing during the salmon runs.

Seasonal Changes in Fly Choice

The choice of fly in Alaska can vary depending on the time of year and the specific fishing destination. In the spring and early summer, when insects like black flies and mosquitoes are active, using patterns that imitate these insects can yield good results. As the summer progresses, options such as salmon fly imitations for salmon fishing or attractor patterns can be effective. In the fall, when spawning salmon dominate the rivers, egg patterns become highly successful.

Best Fly Fishing Locations in Alaska

Alaska offers a plethora of prime fly fishing locations for anglers to explore. The Kenai River, known for its salmon and rainbow trout populations, is a popular destination. The Copper River and Bristol Bay have excellent opportunities for salmon fishing. The Kvichak River and Naknek River in Bristol Bay are renowned for their trophy-sized rainbow trout. Other notable locations include the Naknek Lake, the Talachulitna River, and the Goodnews River. Whether you are seeking salmon, trout, or other freshwater game fish, Alaska’s rivers and lakes provide endless possibilities for fly fishing enthusiasts.

Controlling Fly Populations in Alaska

Managing fly populations is essential for mitigating nuisance, reducing the risk of disease transmission, and safeguarding public health. Various control methods, including chemical, biological, and environmental management, can be employed to limit the abundance and impact of flies in Alaska.

Chemical Control Methods

Chemical control methods involve the use of insecticides and larvicides to target adult flies and their developmental stages. Fogging, spraying, or misting insecticides can effectively reduce fly populations in outdoor areas. Larvicides can be applied to breeding sites to prevent the development of fly larvae. However, care must be taken to minimize potential harm to non-target organisms and the environment when employing chemical control methods.

Biological Control Methods

Biological control methods utilize natural enemies of flies, such as parasitic wasps and other predatory insects, to limit fly populations. These natural enemies actively seek out fly larvae or eggs as a food source, effectively reducing their numbers. Biological control methods are often considered more environmentally friendly and sustainable than chemical options. However, their effectiveness can be influenced by factors such as weather conditions and the presence of alternative prey.

Environmental Management

Environmental management strategies focus on modifying or eliminating fly breeding environments to discourage their proliferation. This involves practices such as clearing stagnant water sources, improving waste management systems, and promoting proper sanitation. By removing or reducing fly breeding sites, the overall fly population can be significantly diminished. Additionally, maintaining good personal hygiene, using screens on windows and doors, and sealing cracks and crevices can help prevent fly entry into homes and buildings.

Research and Studies on Alaska Flies

Ongoing research and studies on Alaska flies play a vital role in understanding their behavior, ecology, and developing effective management strategies. Numerous initiatives and studies have been conducted, providing valuable insights into fly populations and their impacts on the environment and public health.

Current Research Initiatives

Various research initiatives in Alaska focus on fly species of ecological and economic importance. Some ongoing studies include investigating the effects of climate change on fly populations, exploring the role of flies in pollination networks, and assessing the transmission risks of mosquito-borne diseases. By expanding knowledge and understanding, these initiatives aim to enhance fly management practices and protect public health.

Findings from Past Studies

Past studies have contributed to our understanding of fly behavior, lifecycle, and ecological roles in Alaska. Research has revealed the intricate relationships between flies and their environments, shedding light on their contribution to nutrient cycling and decomposition processes. Additionally, studies have provided insights into fly preferences for breeding habitats, helping identify and target effective control measures.

Future Implications for Fly Management

Ongoing research on Alaska flies holds promise for the future of fly management. Advances in understanding the relationships between fly populations, environmental conditions, and their impact on public health can inform targeted control strategies. Moreover, the application of innovative technologies, such as genetic manipulation or targeted insecticides, may offer new avenues for managing fly populations while minimizing adverse effects on non-target organisms and the environment.

In conclusion, Alaska is home to a diverse range of fly species with unique characteristics, lifecycles, and ecological roles. While some flies can be a nuisance or pose health risks, they also play essential roles in the environment, including nutrient recycling, pollination, and decomposition. Understanding the morphology, lifecycle, breeding habitats, and management techniques of Alaska flies is crucial for mitigating their impact on humans, safeguarding public health, and maintaining the balance of Alaska’s ecosystems. Ongoing research and studies continue to contribute to our knowledge and improve fly management practices, ensuring a harmonious coexistence between humans and flies in the Last Frontier.

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